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Recent update on long COVID syndrome: Immunopathogenesis and clinical consequences

  • Gatot Soegiarto ,
  • Kenneth Martino Djajapranata ,

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a global pandemic with millions of confirmed cases. Despite the majority of patients recovered from the acute infection, a subset of individuals experiences persistent symptoms known as long COVID, creating a distinctive clinical entity. Immunopathogenesis emerges as a central player in the intricate web of long-term COVID, involving chronic inflammation, autoantibody formation, and sustained viral presence. The syndrome manifests across diverse organ systems, with neurological, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal implications. Prolonged lung damage and neurological sequelae significantly contribute to the broad spectrum of symptoms observed, ranging from dyspnea to cognitive impairment. Although the understanding of long COVID continues to evolve, navigating the epidemiology of long COVID remains challenging due to varied definitions and study populations among published studies. In addition, various risk factors, encompassing age, gender, comorbidities, and initial COVID-19 symptomatology, further contribute to the complexity of long COVID. Therefore, this review aims to comprehensively explore long COVID in terms of its definition, epidemiology, recent insights into immunopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and possible management of long COVID syndrome.

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How to Cite

Soegiarto, G., & Djajapranata, K. M. . (2024). Recent update on long COVID syndrome: Immunopathogenesis and clinical consequences. Bali Medical Journal, 13(1), 840–849. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v13i1.5156

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Gatot Soegiarto
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BMJ Journal


Kenneth Martino Djajapranata
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BMJ Journal